Arsenal VG 33

In 1936, the Air Force issued specifications for a light fighter timber that can be built quickly in large quantities. It results in 1937. A.23 card program VG.30 Arsenal, the Caudron C.714 and the Bloch 700 were ordered as prototypes. A model of VG.30, already under study, was presented at the International Exhibition in Paris in the summer of 1936. 

Returning to a wooden construction, it was hoped to have abundant material, easy to work and in scattered places, so little vulnerable to shelling. It was just the opposite happened: the necessary essences were only available abroad (Red Spruce, or red spruce, Canada) and supply suffered in.

The VG.30 Vernisse and was designed by Jean Gaultier, who gave their initials to the designation of the aircraft. The VG.30 was made of plywood, with a semi-monocoque construction. He was armed with a gun HS.404 20mm (firing through the propeller hub) and 4 machine guns MAC 1934 (model 39) of 7.5 mm in the wings.

The planned engine Potez 12DC was a 12 cylinder in-line 610 hp, liquid-cooled. It is difficult to develop, the Hispano-Suiza 12Xcrs engine, developing 690 horsepower was installed on the prototype, built from the summer of 1937.

This one flew the first (some sources say 15) in October 1938. Its official tests, between 24 March and 17 July 1939, showed good performance. It was followed by the VG-31 (Hispano-Suiza 12Y-31 of 860 horses reduced scale), which was never built after demonstrating, in the wind tunnel, it would be extremely unstable. The VG-32 (Allison V-1710C-15 1400 hp, which required lengthening the fuselage by 42 cm), which was captured by the Germans in Villacoublay in 1940 before its first flight. It was equipped with two 20 mm guns and two machine guns, and 400 aircraft were to be produced from December 1940. American Motors could not be delivered before the armistice.

The VG-33, which incorporated the fuselage and engine VG-31 and VG-wing 30, took the air on 25 April 1939. It was tested on 11 June 1939 until March 1940. His performances were such (speed of 560 km / h reached) he was ordered to 220 copies on September 12, then to 820 copies. Cell production itself did not take long to start, but the lack of engines made very few copies were ready on time. The expected rate of 350 aircraft per month could not be held.

The first production aircraft flew 21 April 1940. The first deliveries should start in November 1939. Officially, 10 were considered by the Air Force.

167 copies were about to be finished during the Armistice. 19 units were completed and seven, in any case, were engaged in the GC 1/55 June 18 His operational career lasted only one week, during which he would have accomplished 36 missions. It is estimated that beat the Bf-109E-3 in speed and maneuverability, and he yielded to the armament. Wood construction would have given him a short life.

One can always dream that the Luftwaffe would have suffered if the VG.33 was manufactured in large quantities and on time. He was better than the D.520, with its neat aerodynamics. A copy was requisitioned by the Luftwaffe, which tested the Rechlin. The others were destroyed during the German advance.

He was followed by three prototypes flew in 1940: the VG-34 with the 12Y-45 engine of 960 horsepower (January 20), the VG-35 with a 12Y-51 engine 1000 horsepower (25 February), and VG-36, the radiator resembled that of the P-51 (May 14).

VG-37 was a longer version of operating range of VG-36 and VG-38 was equipped with the 12Y-motor 77 and a Brown-Boveri turbocharger. Neither was only built.

The VG-39, it was built to a copy which flew on May 3, 1939. It was powered by a 12Y-89 engine 1200 horsepower. Its fuselage was redesigned. He reached a speed of 625 km / h with 2 additional machine guns. The production version, the VG-39bis, had engine Hispano-Suiza 12Z-17 1600 hp and radiator VG-36, she remained in draft form.

3 other projects followed, the first two of which were based on the VG-39bis: VG-40 with a Merlin III engine and an enlarged flange, the VG-50 with a V-engine Allison 1710-1739 and finally the VG-60 engine Hispano-Suiza 12Y-51 1000 hp, with a Sidlowsky-Planiol two-stage compressor.

Flettner FI.265

The Flettner FI 265 is an experimental helicopter designed by Anton Flettner.

The helicopter was developed in 1938 with support from the German navy. Unlike the Fl 185, FL 265, considered pioneering example a synchropter had two rotors of diameter 12 m.

The radial engine provided a power of 160 (120 kW) BMW-Bramo Sh 14.

Six helicopters have been built. Mass production was reduced in favor of the Flettner Fl 282.

History : 
After the exceptional development of the helicopter Focke-Wulf FW 61, realized in Germany in the years 1931 to 1937, in which Germany wins all records for helicopters, the Luftwaffe placed an order for the development of a helicopter more capable of carrying a payload of 700 kg.

The new helicopter was developed as part of this order by Anton Flettner, expert and inventor in the field of flow technology, and colleagues.

He applied a new concept of two counter-rotating rotors, as well as rather large tail areas. For the propulsion of the rotors 14a Central HS with 150 HP output was used.

The helicopter was designated VI FI 265, TK + AN and was produced in 5 copies, who served from 1939 to 1940 as a helicopter on the cruisers of the German Kriegsmarine operating in the Baltic Sea.

She managed to further production of the easily controllable helicopter, Flettner and has since worked on an improved type of FI 282.

Specifications : 

Crew: 1
Main rotor diameter: 2 × 12.30 m (40 ft 4 1/4 in)
Main rotor speed area: 237.65 m2 (2558 ft2)
Empty weight: 800 kg (1764 lb)
Gross weight: 1,000 kg (2,205 lb)
Engine: 1 × Buramo Sh 14A air-cooled radial engine, 119 kW (160 hp)

Max speed: 160 km / h (99 mph)

Valmet L-70 Vinka

The Valmet L-70 Vinka is a single-engine aircraft designed for beginners in Finland.

The development began in 1970. The first prototype (named LEKO-70) flew for the first time on July 1, 1975. Serial production began on January 15, 1977. The L-70 was replaced in 1980 as a replacement for the Saab Safir in Finnish Air strike forces. The Finnish Air Force issued an order for 30 aircraft to Valmet. The first aircraft was delivered in February 1980, the last 1982. 28 of the machines are still in operation.

Valmet tried to market the L-70 Vinka internationally under the name L-70 Miltrainer; But this failed as no single order was received.

The aircraft is driven by an air-cooled box motor with a hard-core twin-blade metal-air screw and is designed in a conventional all-metal half-shell configuration with a rigid nose wheel gear and as a deep deck. Students and teachers sit side by side.


Crew 2
Length 7.50 m
Wingspan 9.63 m
Height 2.80 m
Wing area 14.50 m²
Empty weight 792 kg
Loaded Weight 1250 kg
Max speed 341 km / h
Service Ceilling 7620 m
Climbing power 11.6 m / s
Range 841 km
Engine Box Lyooking-AEIO-360-A1B6 engine

Power of 149 kW (200 WPS)

The Phönix D.I

The Phönix D.I was basically a development of the Hansa-Brandenburg D.I equipped with a more powerful engine. Various experimental machines were presented to the half of 1917, but none brought a significant improvement over the original hunter, though ultimately the 20.16 model with an Austro-Daimler engine of 200 HP became in its final form, an effective prototype single-seat fighter biplane Phönix DI  

In autumn 1917, three orders of fifty D.I, series 128, 228 and 328, were passed at Phönix, the manufacturing company later forty biplanes Series 128 on behalf of the Austro-Hungarian navy. military biplanes were placed on active service in February / March 1918, initially for escort and reconnaissance missions. But before commissioning in Jagdkompagnien in May, it was necessary to strengthen the wings of D.I, they are prone to weakness when they were under stress. Machinery for the Navy were put into operational service in June, and these hunters remained a serious threat, until the end of the First World War, for the Italian aircraft in the Adriatic.

Although less maneuvering with respect to Allied fighters, the Phönix was a fast machine with good climbing ability. A serious drawback was the inability of the driver to access two machine guns synchronized Schwarzlose caliber 8 mm fitted to that. These weapons were completely covered by the engine cover panel and pulled through openings in the front, a large aerodynamic finesse, but machine guns impossible to achieve in the case of jamming, which happened quite often. This defect persisted on versions D.II and D.IIa.

The D.II was equipped with the same propellant as the previous model, but its wings were of increased scale and minor changes had been made. Three batches, series 122, 222 and 322, were ordered, and a group of D.IIa (422 series) equipped with Hiero engines (Hieronymus) of 230 hp and equipped with ailerons on both wings. Only a little over half of D.II / D.IIa ordered were eventually built, their commissioning is carried out from May 1918. Before the end of the war, was put into production the Phönix D.III, D.IIa an improved model, with wings mounted without dihedral, full flaps and machine guns in the end, positioned further back to be accessible by the driver.

In 1919, after evaluation of the prototype D.III (J41), the Royal Swedish aircraft bought about twenty D.III at Phönix. These biplane were known in Sweden as Phönix 122, suggesting that these machines were rather D.II finally constructed as D.III. Subsequently, a lot of about ten of the same type biplane was built in the workshops of the Swedish army in Malmö in 1924, these aircraft receiving an engine B.M.W. IIIa 185 hp, the Austrian engines were no longer available. These Swedish hunters could be provided with replacement skis landing gear wheels in winter. With the formation of the Svenska Flygvapnet in July 1926, about ten Phönix 122 (now designated JI) were in service in the Wing F 3. They were also in the newest Wing F 5, until 1930, in order to accomplish communication and training missions, and one copy remained in service until the end of 1936, to conduct weather reconnaissance missions. While serving in the Swedish forces, some D.III were endowed with greater drift and equipped with a large fuel tank section and mounted in the center, on top of the upper plane

The Kawasaki KI-100

The Kawasaki KI-100, is the latest Japanese fighter to enter service before the end of the war. 

Based on the cell Kawasaki Ki-61-II KAI was equipped with a radial 1500 horsepower engine Mitsubishi Ha-112-II. This engine 14 double star air-cooled cylinder was known in the Navy under the name MK8P 'Kinsei 62' and cross-arms name was "Ha-33".

The study of the installation of a radial engine on a fine fuselage designed for a narrow V engine was not easy. But the Japanese had a Fw190 which had allowed the installation of the engine on the same dive bomber Yokosuka D4Y3.
This strange transplant yet made an excellent fighter. Mainly due to the general reduction of a very successful aircraft. Indeed, the empty weight of 315kg was lower compared to the Ki-61-II KAI also having an engine 1500ch. However, the top drag caused by the radial engine somewhat reduced the top speed.

275 Ki-61-II cells without engine, we assembled the Ki100-Ia release. The armament was that of Ki-61-I-K AId namely Ho-5 two 20mm guns in the hood and two Ho-103 machine guns of 12.7 mm in the wings.

The unexpected success of the Ki-100-Ia caused the production of new cells with glass bubble: KI-100-Ib. This glass was inspired by that of Ki-61-III that never saw the light. The Ki100-Ib was made because of only 106 copies in the chaos of the end of the war.

It was a great device that could take advantage on the F6F and F4U US Navy and even serenely face the P-51 USAAF.

Specifications : 

Length 8.82 m
Height 3.75 m
Wing span 10,48 m
Wing area 20 m²
Drive a 1500 hp Mitsubishi Ha112-II
Max speed 590 km / h in 6,000 m altitude
Range 2.200 km
Crew : one pilot
Service height 11,000 m
Empty weight 2,525 kg
Loaded weight 3.495 kg
Arming with two x 20 mm Ho-5 guns & two x 12.7 mm Ho-103 guns in the wings

Tayyareci Fethi Bey

Fethi Bey was born in 12 Juin 1887, in Istanbul, Turkey.
He was deas in 27 February 1914, in sea of Galilee vicinity.
Fethi Bey was the first Pilot in Turkey.   

In 1907 he graduated from the Naval Academy. Bristol, England in 1911, where he rose to captain the corner aviation training received in the aircraft factory. He made several demonstration flights in Istanbul for a while.

February 8, 1914 Date of the Nation faithful with Mr. Gwin is Blériot XI / B XI / B began to air the Istanbul-Cairo flights. Konya, Ulukışla, Adana, were among the first casualties in the history of Turkish aviation fell near Homs and Damascus over the last stage of this air travel to reach Cairo on February 27, 1914 Damascus, Tiberias district smear the township. Tomb of Saladin in Damascus Tomb is the tomb of.

On the 8th of March, 1914, five days after the accident of Sadık and Fethi Bey, Nuri Bey, near Damascus, was killed with the second aircraft of the project. Together with Sadık Bey and Nuri Bey, Fethi Bey was buried in the mausoleum of Saladin in Damascus.

As the press at that time reported on the progress of the project, Fethi Bey had a high degree of popularity among the population. In his honor, the founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, renamed the southern Turkish village of Meğri in Fethiye. There the Şehit Fethi Bey İlköğretim Okulu Elementary School was named after him. In the second half of the 20th century a statue of 10 meters high was erected in Fethiye between the port and the Hellenistic theater.

Sikorsky Ilia Mouromets

The Ilia Mouromets was the first russian aircraft in the history of Russian civil . It was designed by Igor Sikorsky and manufactered by Russo-Baltic Wagon Company in 1913.
the russian aircraft was used as a  commercial airliners and also in the world war 1 by the Russian Empire.

History :

The Muromets air ship with Renault motors was Muromets E. 

The Ilya Muromets was produced in 1913 by Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky in the plant premises of Russian-Baltic wagon St. Petersburg. It depended on its forerunner, the Russky Vityaz, which had assumed an essential part in the improvement of the Russian aeronautics and flying machine development at a few motors. 

Initially, this unit was arranged as an extravagance traveler plane. He was with seating for travelers segregated from the team, a room and a restroom. The plane was warmed and was furnished with electric light. The principal tests occurred December 10, 1913 and the main flight took after February 25, 1914 with 16 travelers on load up. Somewhere around 21 and 23 June 1914, the air ship relia St. Petersburg to Kiev in 14 hours and 38 minutes with stand out stopover. 

After the begin of World War I, Sikorsky turned the plane aircraft. It could convey up to 800 kg of bombs and was outfitted with a few weapons in his own particular safeguard. Motors were ensured with a steel protecting 5 mm. 

In August 1914, the air ship were conveyed to the Imperial Russian Air Service and 10 December of that year was made a squadron of 10 aircraft, that number was expanded to 20 until 1916. On September 12, 1916 the Russians lost the principal Ilya Muromets in a battle with four German Albatros. This is the main misfortune endured by an air ship of this sort. Three harmed units figured out how to achieve their base. 

The Russians sold licenses to English and French. The Germans attempted to make a duplicate of this air ship from the remaining parts of the main duplicate they had shot and improvement framed the reason for the acknowledgment of future "mammoth planes" German Gotha G. 

End 1916, the air turned out to be too substantial because of the expansion of its weaponry. Sikorsky swung to another sort of gadget, the Sikorsky Alexander Nevskii (en). 

A sum of 73 planes Ilya Muromets were worked somewhere around 1913 and 1918. Their bombs achieved their objectives with an exactness of 90%. The Ilya Muromets effectuèrent more than 400 missions and push off almost 65 tons of bombs. 

Ilya Muromets last flew in 1922 at the school of the aviation based armed forces of Serpukhov.

Specifications :  

Crew: 4 to 8 (max 12)
Length: 18,80 m
Wingspan: 34.50 m
Wing area: 220 m²
Empty weight: 5,000 kg
Starting weight: 6,500 kg
Max. Starting weight: 7,460 kg
Engine: 4 x Renault 12-cylinder engines, each 162 kW (220 hp)
Max speed: 130 km / h
Range: 560 km
Height: 3200 m
Wing load: 29.5 kg / m²
Power / mass: 0.10 kW / kg

Various numbers and combinations of firearms in war (12.7 mm, 15.3 mm, 25 mm, 37 mm and 7.62 mm rifles), Maxim machine guns, Lewis machine guns, and Leonid Kurschewski's experimental non-rebound rifle.
Bomb loading eight hundred kg bombs, sixteen 50 kg bombs or a 656 kg bomb